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Harvard College Observatory History in Images

List of References

The following is a list of references used in compiling this history.

This is a personal project collecting and documenting early images of Harvard College Observatory, focusing on the site at Observatory Hill (previously Summer House Hill). Buildings, instruments, people, and observations.

Disclaimer: all content here is solely my own views, and in no way represents the views of my employer, or anyone else. Also, I'm documenting things as I learn about them, so expect frequent errors. Corrections will occur without notice and without a changelog at this point.

This list of references is long in part because each web-based image source is viewed as a separate reference, even though half or more come from Harvard Libraries, through their Visual Information Access (VIA). This was the simplest way for me to easily refer to exactly where I got many of the images.

Zech Brigden. An Almanack of the Cœlestial Motions for this Present Year of the Christian Æra 1659 / Being (in our Account) Bissextile, or Leap-year, and from the Creation (according to XXest Computation) 5608.. Samuel Green, 1659.almanack1659

  • http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.39000002594401;view=1up;seq=5

  • Israel Chauncy. An Almanack of the Cœlestial Motions for the Year of the Christian Æra 1663 / Being (in our Account) Bissextile, or Leap-year, and from the Creation 5612. S. Green and M. Johnson, 1663.almanack1663

  • http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.39000002595143;view=1up;seq=7

  • John Foster. An Almanack of Cœlestial Motions for the Year of the Christian Ephocha 1676 / Being first after Leap-year and from the Creation 5625.. John Foster, 1676.almanack1676

  • http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b5538243;view=1up;seq=5

    Foster was already a printer by this time, and printed this edition.

  • Thomas Brattle. An Almanack of Cœlestial Motions of the Sun and Planets, with their principal Aspects, for the Year of the Christian Æra 1678 / Being in our Account the third after Leap-year and from the Creation 5627. S. Green and S. Green, 1678.almanack1678

  • http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.39000002594203;view=1up;seq=7

    Might this be Brattle's first astronomical publication?

  • John Foster. An Almanack of Cœlestial Motions for the Year of the Christian Epocha 1681 / Being in our Account second after Leap-year, And From the Creation, 5630. J. F., 1681.almanack1681

  • http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.39000002594062;view=1up;seq=1

  • J. Hodgson. "An Account of Some Eclipses of the Sun and Moon, Observed by Mr Tho. Brattle, at Cambridge, about Four Miles from Boston in New-England, Whence the Difference of Longitude between Cambridge and London is Determin'd, from an Observation Made of One of Them at London." Philosophical Transactions vol. 24. 1704.brattleeclipse

  • https://archive.org/stream/jstor-102944/102944#page/n1/mode/2up

  • Jn. G. Hales. Plan of Cambridge / From Survey Taken in June 1830. June 1830.map1830

    Date is the survey date, not the pulbication date.

    See image description for more information.

    Benjamin Pierce. A history of Harvard University / from its foundation, in the year 1636, to the period of the American revolution. Brown, Shattuck, and Company, 1833.histharvard

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=uTIBAAAAYAAJ&pg=PR1#v=onepage&q&f=false Google Books

  • Samuel A. Eliot. A Sketch of the History of Harvard College / and of its Present State. Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1848.sketchhist

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=LY44AAAAMAAJ&lpg=PA176&ots=6rJHqSl1RU&pg=PR3#v=onepage&q=telescope&f=false

    Includes a timeline of donations to Harvard, Table II of the Appendix.

  • William Cranch Bond. "Description of the Observatory at Cambridge." Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences vol. 4. Metcalf and Company, 1849.academybond

  • https://archive.org/stream/jstor-25058158/25058158#page/n9/mode/2up Archive.org copy of JSTOR copy; high quality images; link to single article
  • https://books.google.com/books?id=R8U-AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA180-IA7#v=onepage&q&f=false Google Books copy, includes the entire Memoirs v. 4

    A precursor to the history he writes for the 1885 Annals volume 1 annals1.

    Is this the earliest publication from Bond on the Observatory?

    The article lists the submission date as 1848/11/8, which I use as the date of the images found here.

  • Isaac Smith Homans. Sketches of Boston, past and present / and of some few places in its vicinity. Phillips, Sampson, and Company, 1851.sketches

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=_IIUAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA62&hl=en&sa=X&ei=hXBsVd6vFIrisAT06oC4Aw&ved=0CC0QuwUwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false

  • Gleason's Pictorial Drawing Room Companion. 1851.gleason

  • https://archive.org/details/gleasonspictoria01glea

  • Robert Sears. A Pictorial Description of the United States. 1852.pictorialus

  • https://archive.org/details/pictorialdescrip01sear Source of the image I'm using.
  • http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=loc.ark:/13960/t4xh0090g;view=1up;seq=13 1860 edition image is lower quality; otherwise essentially identical.

  • William Cranch Bond. Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College / History and Description of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College vol. 1. Metcalf and Company, 1856.annals1

  • http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101045554977;view=1up;seq=107 Hathitrust version, based on Princeton copy; Parts 1 and 2; better image quality
  • https://books.google.com/books?id=gENHAAAAcAAJ&pg=PP3#v=onepage&q&f=false Google Books version (part 1 only)

    The very first in a long series of "Annals" publications from the Observatory. This edition starts with a detailed early history of the observatory. Similar to the one found in the Memoirs of the AAAs in 1849 academybond, but expaneded.This history is tne entirety of Part 1. Part 2 contains astronomical results from observations.

  • Elias Loomis. "Astronomical Observatories in the United States." Harper's New Monthly Magazine vol. 13 no. 73. June 1856.observusharpers

  • https://archive.org/stream/harpersnew13harper#page/38/mode/2up

  • The Descriptive Register of Genuine Bank Notes for the Detection of Spurious and Altered Bills / Containing Accurate, Elaborate, and Plain Descriptions of the Notes Issued by Every Bank in the United States and Canada, Conveniently Arranged for Reference. Gwynne and Day, Bankers, 1859.banknotes

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=bbBVAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA36#v=onepage&q=thomas%20hollis&f=false

  • William Cranch Bond and George PHillips Bond [and Joseph Winlock]. Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College / 1859-1860 vol. 7. Welch, Bigelow, & Co., 1872.annals7

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=UJo7AQAAMAAJ&pg=PP9#v=onepage&q&f=false
  • http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.31822020245874;view=1up;seq=8;size=175 Source of the Bond Lithograph

    This Annals is mainly a catalog of 6100 stars. But it is also the earliest source I have of the photo (photolithograph) of Bond.

    Not published until 1872 under Director Joseph Winlock, this documents some of the final work of William Cranch Bond who died in 1859. His son George Phillips Bond continued his work and continued on as Director also, but he also died in 1865 before this work could be published. Joseph Winlock survived another three years before he also died as Director. (Later Ed Pickering would continue that tradition, but he at least had a long run as director. Finally Harlow Shapley ended it and retired from the position while still alive in 1952, living another twenty years.)

  • Elias Nason. A Gazetteer of the State of Massachusetts. B. B. Russell, 1874.gazetteer

  • https://archive.org/details/gazetteerofstate00innaso

  • F. O. Vaille and H. A. Clark (Class of 1874). The Harvard Book / A Series of Historical, Biographical, and Descriptive Sketches vol. 1. Welch, Bigelow, and Company, 1875.harvardbook

  • https://archive.org/details/harvardbookserie01vail The scan resolution is great, but the contrast is too high. Perhaps look for another version at some point.
  • https://books.google.com/books?id=noMxAQAAMAAJ&pg=PR3#v=onepage&q&f=false

    This is a beautiful book.

    Excellent photos of Winlock, Pierce, Lovering with short biographies.

    New (?) photo of Observatory (lawn mower man, plus others, seems familiar)

    Dana house photo

  • "Joseph Winlock." Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences vol. 11 (whole series). Press of John Wilson and Son, 1876.academywinlock

  • http://books.google.com/books?id=FA8WAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA339#v=onepage&q&f=false

  • Fiftieth Annual Report of the President of Harvard College. / 1874-1875.. John Wilson and Son., 1876.harvardreport7475

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=iToBAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA47#v=onepage&q&f=false

  • Fiftieth Annual Report of the President of Harvard College. / 1875-1876.. John Wilson and Son., 1877.harvardreport7576

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=iToBAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA47#v=onepage&q&f=false

  • [Joseph Winlock and Arthur Searle?]. Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College vol. 8. John Wilson and Son, October 1876.annals8

  • http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924056091709;view=1up;seq=30 Hathitrust copy of Cornell scans (the best available online images.)
  • https://books.google.com/books?id=SEhWAAAAYAAJ&pg=PR1#v=onepage&q&f=false Google Books copy, also from Cornell

    This edition was released a year or so after the third director, Joseph Winlock, passed away. Arthur Searle was the assistant director, and prepared this volume.harvardreport7576

    Part 1 is "Historical Account of the Observatory from October, 1855, to October, 1876."

    Part 2 contains:

    "I. Astronomical Engravings of the Moon, Planets, etc.

    prepared at the expense of the funds already named [Sturgis fund; Josaiah Quincy]

    II. Astronomical Engravings Illustrating Solar Phenomena."

    The Illustrations in part II are largely the work of L. Trouvelet.

  • Richard A. Proctor. "The Moons of Mars." The English Mechanic / And World of Science vol. 26. 14 September 1877.mechanic26

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=n3gAAAAAMAAJ&dq=mars%20satellite%20mccormick&pg=PA1#v=onepage&q&f=false

    Article on the diescover of Phobos and Demios

  • The Academy vol. 12 no. 280. 15 September 1877.academy12

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=S_88AQAAIAAJ&dq=mars%20satellite%20mccormick&pg=PA259#v=onepage&q&f=false

    Mention of discovery of phobos and deimos

  • Greenough's Cambridge Directory for 1878. Greenough & Co., 1878.cambdir1878

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=jg4rAAAAYAAJ&lpg=PA368&ots=zHV4x6CdeH&pg=PA5#v=onepage&q&f=false

    Includes:

    • Austin Edward P., prof. of astronomy H. U., house 15 Arlington

    • Clark Alvan (Alvan Clark & Sons), telescope maker, Brookline, n. the bridge, h. 184 do.

    • Clark Alvan & Sons (Alvan, Alvan G., and George B. Clark), telescope makers, Brookline, n. the bridge

    • Clarke Alvan G. (Alvan Clark & Sons), telescope maker, h. 186 Brookline, near the bridge

    • Lovering Joseph, Hollis professor of mathematics and natural philosophy H. U., house 38 Kirkland

    • Macconnell Augustus, watches (97 Water, B.) and astronomical observer, Cambridge Observatory

    • McCormick Joseph M., computer at Harvard College observatory, boards do.

    • Metcalf Chas. H., student Harvard College Observatory, boards 27 Divinity hall

    • Pickering Edward Charles, director of the Observatory, Phillips prof. of Astronomy, and prof. of Geodesy, h. Obervatory, Garden

    • Peirce Benjamin, Perkins professor of astronomy and mathematics H. U. and consulting geometer U. S. coast survey, house 4 Kirkland place

    • Rogers William A., assistant professor of astronomy H. U. Observatory bds. do.

    • Saunders Rhoda G. Miss, computer Cambridge Observatory, Garden, boards 18 Mason

    • Searle Arthur, assistant at Cambridge Observatory, h. 12 Madison

    • Trouvelot Leopold, astronomer, house 99 Garden

    • Upton Winslow, asst. Harvard College Observatory, b. do.

    • Winlock Joseph Mrs., house 47 Langdon

  • Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College / Observations with the Meridian Photometer During the Years 1879-82 vol. 14. John Wilson and Son, 1885.annals14

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=HJctAQAAMAAJ&dq=annals%20of%20the%20astronomical%20observatory%20of%20harvard%20%22meridian%20photometer%22&pg=PP10#v=onepage&q=upton&f=false

    Includes an engraving matching the photo in olvwork431861

    Description of the two-inch (aka one-and-a-half, aka 1.6 inch) meridian photometer.

  • Edward C. Pickering. Henry Draper Memorial / First Annual Report of the Photographic Study of Stellar Spectra vol. 1. John Wilson and Son, 1887.draperreport1887

  • https://archive.org/details/henrydrapermemor00harvrich This online copy contains the first three annual reports.

  • Edward C. Pickering. Forty-First Annual Report of the Director of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College. Published by the University, 07 December 1886.annual1886

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=dXXvAAAAMAAJ&dq=harvard%20observatory%20annals%2028%20reflector&pg=PA1#v=onepage&q&f=false

    Same URL contains 1885-1904 Annual reports

    1886 report mentions that Mrs. Draper provided an 11" lens, mounting, and a small observatory to contain it. Apparently close to the end of that year.

  • Edward C. Pickering. Forty-Second Annual Report of the Director of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College. Published by the University, 02 December 1887.annual1887

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=dXXvAAAAMAAJ&dq=harvard%20observatory%20annals%2028%20reflector&pg=PA13#v=onepage&q&f=false

    Same URL contains 1885-1904 Annual reports

    1887 report mentions building of two domes for 28 reflect, 11 refract, plans for another for boyden fund instrument

    Also the use of two houses on Madison, purchase of one, use of the other already owned. And the construction of a forty-foot long building for photographic and spectrographic purposes.

  • Edward C. Pickering. Henry Draper Memorial / Second Annual Report of the Photographic Study of Stellar Spectra vol. 2. John Wilson and Son, 1888.draperreport1888

  • https://archive.org/details/henrydrapermemor00harvrich This online copy contains the first three annual reports.

    Contains one of the best scans of an early observatory photo I have.

  • Edward C. Pickering. Henry Draper Memorial / Third Annual Report of the Photographic Study of Stellar Spectra vol. 3. John Wilson and Son, 1889.draperreport1889

  • https://archive.org/details/henrydrapermemor00harvrich This online copy contains the first three annual reports.

  • Daniel W. Baker. History of the Harvard College Observatory During the Period 1840-1890. 1890.baker90

  • https://archive.org/stream/historyofharvard00bakerich#page/8/mode/2up

    Reprinted from a series of articles in the Boston Evening Traveller.

    A preface by Edward C. Pickering states that the series spanned six successive Saturdays beginning August 2, 1890.

  • "Joseph Lovering. [Obituary]." The Harvard Crimson. 19 January 1892.joveringcrimsonobit

  • http://www.thecrimson.com/article/1892/1/19/joseph-lovering-professor-joseph-lovering-died/

    Career overview.

  • Helen Leah Reed. "Women's Work at the Harvard Observatory.." The New England Magazine vol. 6 no. 2. April 1892.womenswork

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=FFHhAAAAMAAJ&lpg=PA167&ots=VxCAhY8rnY&pg=PA165#v=onepage&q&f=false
  • https://archive.org/stream/newenglandmagazi1892bost#page/164/mode/2up

    Includes several photos, including two common photos of women computers in the old computing rooms; Snowy observatory from platform; Henry Draper; "Draper Photographic Telescope", and shed; plates; spectra; Arequipa; Williamina (not found elsewhere!); variable star graph.

    Two eight inch telescopes?

    Mentions Fleming, Maury, and Leland.

    Bizarrely this article uses no first names of the women computers. First names of already famous women, and first names of men are used. Editorial policy of the day? Random coincidence?

  • Edward C. Pickering. Forty-Seventh Annual Report of the Director of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College. Published by the University, 31 October 1892.annual1892

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=dXXvAAAAMAAJ&dq=harvard%20observatory%20annals%2028%20reflector&pg=PA61#v=onepage&q&f=false

    Same URL contains 1885-1904 Annual reports

    This report talks about the beginning of the bruce telescope building, the beginning of building the directors' residence (and finances), and fund-raising for the photographic library, which is mostly completed.

  • Edward C. Pickering. Forty-Eighth Annual Report of the Director of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College. Published by the University, 31 October 1893.annual1893

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=TZAEAAAAQAAJ&dq=harvard%20observatory%20residence%20addition&pg=RA1-PA110#v=onepage&q&f=false

    Same URL contains 1885-1904 Annual reports

    1893 report mentions completion of construction of director's residence addition, near completion of the Bruce building and mounting, a transfer of plates to the new brick building.

    Transferred boxes of 100 plates at a time on a pulley system!!! "allowed to run down" !

  • Annie J. Cannon. In the Footsteps of Columbus. 1893.footsteps

  • https://archive.org/details/infootstepsofcol00cann

    Annie Jump Cannon's first publication? Before her astronomy career began.

    A book of photos she took as a budding photographer, and a description of her trip abroad.

  • William H. Pickering. Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College / Part 1: Investigations in Astronomical Photography vol. 32. University Press / John Wilson and Son, 1895.annals32p1

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=ezZAAQAAMAAJ&pg=PP9#v=onepage&q&f=false

    Contains descriptions of their photographic techniques

  • Edward S. Holden. Memorials of William Cranch Bond and of His Son George Phillips Bond. 1897.bondmemorials

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=XnUEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PR1#v=onepage&q&f=false

    A collection of memorials from colleagues, and bits of letters and diaries of the father and son.

  • William H. Pickering. Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College / Part 2: Visual Observations of the Moon and Planets vol. 32. University Press / John Wilson and Son, 1900.annals32p2

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=ezZAAQAAMAAJ&dq=annals%20of%20the%20astronomical%20observatory%20harvard%20wooden%20structure&pg=PA116-IA13#v=onepage&q&f=false

    Contains descriptions of their photographic techniques

  • William Jay Youmans. Pioneers of Science in America / Sketches of their Lives and Scientific Work. D. Appleton and Company, 1896.scipioneers

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=SB8SAAAAYAAJ&&pg=PR1#v=onepage&q=lovering%20comet%20lecture&f=false
  • https://archive.org/stream/pioneersofscienc00youmrich#page/n275/mode/2up

    "Reprinted with Additions from the Popular Science Monthly"

    Some stuff on John Winthrop, the astronomer.

    Stuff on W. C. Bond, good quality engraving

  • Harriet Richardson Donaghe. "Photographic Flashes from Harvard Observatory." Popular Astronomy vol. 6 no. 9. November 1898.popularastro6

  • http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101075380087;view=1up;seq=539

    Frontispiece is a group photo from conference. Pg. 536 has identifications!

  • George C. Comstock. A Textbook of Astronomy. 1901?.comstocktextbook

    Mary E. Byrd. "Anna Winlock. [Obituary]." Popular Astronomy vol. 12. 1904.annawinlockpopobit

  • http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.32106006425869;view=1up;seq=290

  • Edward C. Pickering. "The Astronomical Observatory." Harvard Alumni Bulletin vol. 17 no. 23. Harvard Bulletin, Inc. Boston, Mass., 10 March 1915.alumni1915

  • http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015013791374;view=1up;seq=466

  • Annie J. Cannon. "The Henry Draper Memorial." The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada vol. 9. 17 April 1915.drapercannon

  • http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433110032509;view=1up;seq=240

    Article about the history of the Draper Memorial project. Several related photos and spectra, including (oddly out-of-date) grounds photo with labels of instruments.

  • Frederick E. Brasch. "John Winthrop (1714-1779), America's First Astronomer, and the Science of His Period." Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific vol. 28 no. 165. October 1916.winthropfirst

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=vqbnAAAAMAAJ&lpg=PA158&ots=vFV0ir_Evg&pg=PA152-IA2#v=onepage&q&f=false

  • William L. Payson. "Notes on Some Tory Row Land Titles." The Proceedings of the Cambridge Historical Society vol. 37. 29 January 1957.toryrow

  • http://www.cambridgehistory.org/content/notes-some-tory-row-land-titles

  • Margaret W. Rossiter. ""Women's Work" in Science, 1880-1910." Isis vol. 71 no. 3. University of Chicago Press, September 1980.womensworksci

  • http://www.jstor.org/stable/230118 (probably behind a paywall)

    One picture not found elswhere

    Includes lots of good references

  • Barbara L. Welther. ""Pickering's Harem"." Isis vol. 73 no. 1. March 1982.pickeringsharem

  • http://www.jstor.org/stable/232084

    Not sure if this JSTOR article is public or not. Fantastic information on women in popular "Pickering's Harem" photo.

  • Rick Kennedy. "Thomas Brattle and the Scientific Provincialism of New England, 1680-1713." The New England Quarterly vol. 63 no. 4. December 1990.provincialbrattle

  • http://www.jstor.org/stable/365919?seq=6#page_scan_tab_contents

  • Sara Schechner Genuth. "From Heaven's Alarm to Public Appeal: Comets and the Rise of Astronomy at Harvard." Science at Harvard University / Historical Perspectives. Associated University Presses, Inc., 1992.heavensalarm

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=vrvS7rzvsI4C&lpg=PA31&ots=_46sF9q6mX&pg=PA28#v=onepage&q&f=false

  • Gabriele Kass-Simon. Women of Science / Righting the Record. Indiana University Press, 1993.rightingrecord

  • https://books.google.com/books?id=Ez7DCJM57esC&lpg=PA86&pg=PA86#v=onepage&f=false (Preview)

    Seems to be thoroughly researched and offers lots of references. Details not found elsewhere, including early computer hires, and background, e.g. Maria Mitchell

  • Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin / An Autobiography and Other Recollections. 1996.paynerecollections

    A republished edition of her autobiography, expanded with other memoirs. Published by her daughter I think.

    Peter van der Merwe. "A Galileo galaxy." Royal Museums Greenwich Collections Blog. 30 June 2010.rmgblog

  • http://blogs.rmg.co.uk/collections/2010/06/30/a_galileo_galaxy/ retrieved 2015/07/29

    Some details on Galileo busts and paintings in their collection, with details on the Pandolfini portrait of Galileo

  • jchatoff. "Stellar, II." CONTEXT / [jchatoff.wordpress.com]. 27 September 2011.stellarii

  • https://jchatoff.wordpress.com/2011/09/27/stellar-ii/

    Very detailed info on women from popular photo of "Pickering's Harem" from about 1912. OH. Turns out it comes from "Pickering's Harem" article.pickeringsharem Never mind.

  • David Alan Grier. When Computers Were Human. Princeton University Press, 01 November 2013.computershuman

    Sara J. Schechner. "How telescopes came to New England, 1620-1740." Scientific Instruments in the History of Science: Studies in transfer, use and preservation. 2014.nescopes

  • http://www.mast.br/scientific_instruments_in_the_history_of_science_studies_in_transfer_use_and_preservation/SCHECHNER_p69-78.pdf

  • "Thomas Hollis (1659–1731)." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 28 July 2015.wikihollis

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Hollis_(1659–1731)

  • Unidentified Artist. John Winthrop, the Younger (1606-1676). Harvard Art Museum, 2015.winthropportrait

  • http://www.harvardartmuseums.org/collections/object/304971

    Background info and image for this painting. Artist and date unknown

    Harvard Art Museum object number H601

    Gift of Robert Winthrop, representing the Winthrop family, to Harvard University, 1964

  • "Photograph of a large equatorial by Merz and Mahler." Science Museum Group / Collections Online - Objects. Science Museum Group, 2015.nmsipulkovo

  • http://collectionsonline.nmsi.ac.uk/detail.php?t=objects&type=browse&f=CATEGORY1&s=SCM+-+Astronomy&record=785

    Only image found so far of Pulkovo 15" refractor.

  • "Pulkovo Observatory." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 22 June 2015.wikipulkovo

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulkovo_Observatory

  • "Annie Jump Cannon." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 03 August 2015.wikicannon

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annie_Jump_Cannon

  • James W. Hanner. "Margaret Harwood and the Maria Mitchell Observatory." The Journal of the American Association of Variable Star Observers vol. 43. AAVSO, 21 May 2015.jaavsoharwood

  • http://www.aavso.org/media/jaavso/3072.pdf

    Among other things, includes list of Maria Mitchell Observatory assistants

  • Catherine Shteynberg. "Pickering's Women?." The Bigger Picture / Exploring Archives and Smithsonian History. Smithsonian Institution Archives, 08 May 2009.sipickwomen

  • http://siarchives.si.edu/blog/pickering-women

    Includes a version of the "paper doll" photo with labels attached. Link for the image to AIP is broken but you can "view image" a somewhat larger size.

  • Barlow Bob. Solar Star party / Spectroscopy History. The NorthEast Astronomy Forum, 2015 (retrieved).neafspectrohist

  • http://www.neafsolar.com/bb/spectroscopy.html

  • "William Cranch Bond." Time and Navigation / The untold story of getting from here to there.. Smithsonian Institution, 19 [retrieved] August 2015.sibond

  • http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/multimedia-asset/william-cranch-bond

    Adequate resolution photo of Bond portrait

  • "William Cranch Bond / American Astronomer." Encyclopædia Britannica. 21 [retrieved] August 2015.bondbritannica

  • http://www.britannica.com/biography/William-Cranch-Bond

    Alternate source of W.C.Bond photo.

  • Chrstopher Hail. Cambridge Buildings and Architects. 27 [retrieved] August 2015.cambuildings

  • http://hul.harvard.edu/lib/archives/refshelf/cba/index.html

    Amazing database of the history of buildings and streets in Cambridge.

  • "Cecilia Helena Payne Gaposchkin (1900-1979)." Smithsonian Institution Archives. 26 [retrieved] August 2015.sia2009-1328

  • http://siris-archives.si.edu/ipac20/ipac.jsp?&profile=all&source=~!siarchives&uri=full=3100001~!306389~!0#focus
  • http://siarchives.si.edu/collections/siris_arc_306389

  • "Cecilia Helena Payne Gaposchkin (1900-1979)." Smithsonian Institution Archives. 26 [retrieved] August 2015.sia2009-1327

  • http://siris-archives.si.edu/ipac20/ipac.jsp?&profile=all&source=~!siarchives&uri=full=3100001~!306388~!0#focus
  • http://siarchives.si.edu/collections/siris_arc_306388

  • "Portrait of Annie Jump Cannon." Radcliffe College Archives / PC 70-1-2. Harvard Libraries, olvwork353777

  • http://id.lib.harvard.edu/via/olvwork353777/urn-3:RAD.ARCH:1066490/catalog (sometimes it says link not valid, just try again)
  • http://via.lib.harvard.edu:80/via/deliver/deepLinkItem?recordId=olvwork353777&componentId=RAD.ARCH:1066490 (I got this link from their "bookmark" link, but it still seems broken)

  • "Portrait of Annie Jump Cannon." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (E2668). Harvard Libraries, olvwork432373

  • http://id.lib.harvard.edu/via/olvwork353777/urn-3:RAD.ARCH:1066490/catalog (sometimes it says link not valid, just try again)
  • http://via.lib.harvard.edu:80/via/deliver/deepLinkItem?recordId=olvwork353777&componentId=RAD.ARCH:1066490 (I got this link from their "bookmark" link, but it still seems broken)

  • "[Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, construction, ca. 1892]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (278). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431930

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431930

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431930

    Title: [Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, construction, ca. 1892]
    Work Type: photographs
    Related Information: Online inventory of the Records of the Harvard College Observatory : Photographs
    Dimensions: Mount: 8 x 10 inches
    Creator: Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge
    Related Work: From the Records of the Harvard College Observatory: Photographs
    Date: 1892
    Repository: Harvard University Archives
    UAV 630.271 (278)

  • "[Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, construction, ca. 1892]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (279). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431931

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431931

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431931

    Repository: Harvard University Archives
    UAV 630.271 (279)
    Work Type: photographs
    Dimensions: Mount: 8 x 10 inches
    Creator: Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge
    Date: 1892
    Related Information: Online inventory of the Records of the Harvard College Observatory : Photographs
    Title: [Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, construction, ca. 1892]
    Related Work: From the Records of the Harvard College Observatory: Photographs

  • "[View of homes in Cambridge from above with telescope in foreground]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (365). Harvard Libraries, olvwork432017

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork432017

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork432017

    Creator: Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge
    Related Work: From the Records of the Harvard College Observatory: Photographs
    Work Type: photographs
    Dimensions: Mount: 4 1/4 x 5 1/4 inches
    Title: [View of homes in Cambridge from above with telescope in foreground]
    Related Information: Online inventory of the Records of the Harvard College Observatory : Photographs
    Repository: Harvard University Archives
    UAV 630.271 (365)

  • "[Observatory Staff in "paper doll" pose, (in line holding hands) panoramic photograph ca. 1918]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (391). Harvard Libraries, olvwork432043

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork432043

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork432043

    Repository: Harvard University Archives
    UAV 630.271 (391)
    Related Information: Online inventory of the Records of the Harvard College Observatory : Photographs
    Date: ca. 1918
    Creator: Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge
    Dimensions: Mount:
    Work Type: photographs
    Note: General: [Names on Verso from left to right on Image:] Ida Woods, Eva Leland, Florence Cushman, Grace Brooks, [Hannah?], Henrietta Leavitt, Mollie O'Reilly, Mabel Gill, Alta Carpenter, A.J.C, [Annie Jump Cannon], Arville Walker, Mr. Hinckley, Prof. King.. Condition Note: fragile; refer for conservation.
    Related Work: From the Records of the Harvard College Observatory: Photographs
    Title: [Observatory Staff in "paper doll" pose, (in line holding hands) panoramic photograph ca. 1918]

  • "Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), copy after Justus Suttermans[sic] (1597-1681)." Harvard Portrait/Clock Collections. Harvard Libraries, HUAM299708

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=HUAM299708
  • http://www.harvardartmuseums.org/collections/object/299708

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: HUAM299708

    Repository: Harvard Portrait/Clock Collections
    Work Type: painting
    Creator: Unidentified Artist
    Dimensions: 59.7 x 53.3 cm (23 1/2 x 21 in.)
    framed: 90.2 x 81.9 x 12.1 cm (35 1/2 x 32 1/4 x 4 3/4 in.)
    Topics: Paintings
    Materials/Techniques: Oil on canvas
    Copyright: President and Fellows of Harvard College
    Note: Credit Line: Harvard University Portrait Collection, Bequest of Professor Edward C. Pickering to Harvard University, 1919
    Associated Name: Copy after Suttermans, Justus (1597-1681)
    Title: Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), copy after Justus Suttermans (1597-1681)
    Item Identifier: H238 (Object Number)
    Nationality/Culture: Unidentified culture

  • "Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), after Justus Suttermans [sic]." Harvard Portrait/Clock Collections. Harvard Libraries, HUAM311240

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=HUAM311240
  • http://www.harvardartmuseums.org/collections/object/311240

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: HUAM311240

    Materials/Techniques: Oil on canvas
    Creator: Carlton, William Tolman (1816-1888), American
    Repository: Harvard Portrait/Clock Collections
    Description: The original portrait of Galileo by Sustermanns is in the Uffizi Museum, Florence.
    Title: Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), after Justus Suttermans [sic]
    Copyright: President and Fellows of Harvard College
    Item Identifier: H182 (Object Number)
    Topics: Paintings
    Note: Credit Line: Harvard University Portrait Collection, Gift of W. T. Carleton to the University, 1890
    Dimensions: 68.5 x 55.2 cm (26 15/16 x 21 3/4 in.)
    framed: 85.1 x 73 x 8.9 cm (33 1/2 x 28 3/4 x 3 1/2 in.)
    Nationality/Culture: American
    Date: c.1842
    Associated Name: Copy after Suttermans [sic], Justus (1597-1681)
    Work Type: painting

  • "Alvan Clark (1804-1887)." Harvard Portrait/Clock Collections. Harvard Libraries, HUAM311226

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=HUAM311226

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: HUAM311226

    Topics: Paintings
    Nationality/Culture: American
    Materials/Techniques: Oil on canvas
    Item Identifier: H181 (Object Number)
    Note: Credit Line: Harvard University Portrait Collection, Gift of Mrs. Alvan Clark to the Harvard College Observatory, 1899
    Dimensions: 75.3 x 62.6 cm (29 5/8 x 24 5/8 in.)
    framed: 98.7 x 86.4 x 1.5 cm (38 7/8 x 34 x 9/16 in.)
    Repository: Harvard Portrait/Clock Collections
    Copyright: President and Fellows of Harvard College
    Production: United States
    Associated Name: Foster Brothers
    Title: Alvan Clark (1804-1887)
    Creator: Hollingsworth, George (1813-1882), American
    Date: c. 1839-1840
    Work Type: painting

  • "[Building in Cambridge under construction]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (177). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431829

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431829

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431829

  • "[Building in Cambridge under construction]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (178). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431830

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431830

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431830

  • "[Platform for building in Cambride under construction]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (179). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431831

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431831

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431831

  • "[Building in Cambridge under construction]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (180). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431832

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431832

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431832

  • "[Building in Cambridge under construction]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (181). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431833

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431833

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431833

  • "[Building in Cambridge under construction]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (182). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431834

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431834

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431834

  • "[Telescope dome in Cambridge under construction]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (183). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431835

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431835

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431835

  • "[Telescope dome in Cambridge under construction]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (184). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431836

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431836

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431836

  • "[Telescope dome in Cambridge under construction]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (185). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431837

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431837

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431837

  • "[Telescope dome in Cambridge under construction]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (186). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431838

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431838

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431838

  • "[Telescope dome in Cambridge under construction]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (187). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431839

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431839

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431839

  • "[Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (E157). Harvard Libraries, olvwork432360

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork432360

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork432360

  • "[Observatory buildings]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (205). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431857

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431857

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431857

  • "The Observatory." Harvard Art Museums. Harvard Libraries, HUAM71421

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=HUAM71421

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: HUAM71421

  • "Observatory Group [photographic group portrait, ca. 1910]." Harvard University Archives / HUPSF Observatory (14). Harvard Libraries, olvwork360662

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork360662

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork360662

  • "[Observatory Residence, Cambridge, Massachusetts]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (172). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431824

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431824

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431824

  • "[Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, construction, ca. 1892]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (297). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431949

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431949

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431949

  • "[Harvard College Observatory building under contruction] 1892." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (150). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431802

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431802

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431802

  • "Observatory Women [photographic group portrait, 1925]." Harvard University Archives / HUPSF Observatory (19). Harvard Libraries, olvwork360663

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork360663

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork360663

  • "William Cranch Bond (1789-1859)." Harvard Portrait/Clock Collections. Harvard Libraries, HUAM311225

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=HUAM311225

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: HUAM311225

  • "[View of Harvard College Observatory in winter, photgraph] ." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (E2434). Harvard Libraries, olvwork432391

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork432391

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork432391

  • "Astro Photographic Museum. Harvard College Observatory [(i.e. C building)] ." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (E2547). Harvard Libraries, olvwork432403

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork432403

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork432403

  • "[Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, construction, ca. 1892]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (295). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431947

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431947

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431947

  • "[Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, construction, ca. 1892]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (294). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431946

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431946

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431946

  • "[Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, construction, ca. 1892]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (296). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431948

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431948

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431948

  • "[Harvard College Observatory building under contruction] 1892." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (149). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431801

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431801

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431801

  • "[Harvard College Observatory buildings in Cambridge]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (188). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431840

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431840

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431840

  • "Astronomical observatory of Harvard College, Cambridge, 1887." Harvard College Observatory Library / 6610-18. Harvard Libraries, olvwork422686

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork422686

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork422686

  • Harvard Libraries, 431861

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=431861

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: 431861

  • "[Apparatus]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (209). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431861

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431861

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431861

  • "[Williamina P. Fleming, photographic portrait, ca. 1890]
    Alternate Title: [Fleming, Williamina P., [photographic portrait, ca. 1900]." Harvard University Archives / HUP Fleming, Williamina (1). Harvard Libraries, olvwork289681

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork289681

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork289681

  • "[Women on-board ship, ca. 1900]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (173). Harvard Libraries, olvwork431825

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork431825

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork431825

  • "[Observatory women computers], 1891." Harvard University Archives / HUV 1210 (9-3). Harvard Libraries, olvwork289691

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork289691

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork289691

  • "Observatory girls with Mrs. Draper, 1891
    Alternate Title: [Observatory computer room and staff], 1891." Harvard University Archives / HUV 1210 (9-5). Harvard Libraries, olvwork289692

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork289692

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork289692

  • "Observatory [analysis of stellar spectra], 1891." Harvard University Archives / HUV 1210 (9-6). Harvard Libraries, olvwork289693

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork289693

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork289693

  • "[Observatory computer room and staff], 1891." Harvard University Archives / HUV 1210 (9-4). Harvard Libraries, olvwork289689

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork289689

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork289689

  • "A group of women computers [photographic group portrait, ca. 1900]." Harvard University Archives / HUPSF Observatory (45). Harvard Libraries, olvwork360664

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork360664

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork360664

  • "[Williamina Fleming at Harvard College Observatory plate stacks, ca. 1900]." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (388). Harvard Libraries, olvwork432040

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork432040

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork432040

  • "[Observatory data analysis by women computers] ." Harvard University Archives / UAV 630.271 (E4116). Harvard Libraries, olvwork432388

  • http://viacs.hul.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepcontent?recordId=olvwork432388

    Harvard Libraries Object Identifier: olvwork432388
















































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